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History & Geography

History

Intent

Our history curriculum has been designed to give children a coherent knowledge and understanding of Britain’s past and that of the wider world: it will inspire children’s curiosity to know more. We want children to ask perceptive questions, think critically, weigh evidence, sift arguments, and develop perspective and judgement. History helps children to understand the complexity of people’s lives, the process of change, the diversity of societies and relationships between different groups, as well as their own identity and the challenges of their time. Our Knowledge Organisers specify the key knowledge, dates, vocabulary and definitions that we expect all children to have learned by the end of each unit of lessons.

Overall Aims

Our history curriculum (overview PDF below) aims for all children to

  • know and understand the history of these islands as a coherent, chronological narrative, from the earliest times to the present day: how people’s lives have shaped this nation and how Britain has influenced and been influenced by the wider world
  • know and understand significant aspects of the history of the wider world: the nature of ancient civilisations; the expansion and dissolution of empires; characteristic features of past non-European societies; achievements and follies of mankind
  • gain and deploy a historically grounded understanding of abstract terms such as ‘empire’, ‘civilisation’, ‘parliament’ and ‘peasantry’
  • understand historical concepts such as continuity and change, cause and consequence, similarity, difference and significance, and use them to make connections, draw contrasts, analyse trends, frame historically-valid questions and create their own structured accounts, including written narratives and analyses
  • understand the methods of historical enquiry, including how evidence is used rigorously to make historical claims, and discern how and why contrasting arguments and interpretations of the past have been constructed
  • gain historical perspective by placing their growing knowledge into different contexts, understanding the connections between local, regional, national and international history; between cultural, economic, military, political, religious and social history; and between short- and long-term timescales

Key Stage 1

Children will develop an awareness of the past, using common words and phrases relating to the passing of time. They will know where the people and events they study fit within a chronological framework and identify similarities and differences between ways of life in different periods. They will use a wide vocabulary of everyday historical terms. They will also ask and answer questions, choosing and using parts of stories and other sources to show that they know and understand key features of events. They will understand some of the ways in which we find out about the past and identify different ways in which it is represented.

They will learn about

  • changes within living memory.
  • events beyond living memory that are significant nationally or globally [for example, the Great Fire of London, and the Gunpowder plot]
  • the lives of significant individuals in the past who have contributed to national and international achievements. Some of this learning will help children to compare aspects of life in different periods [Neil Armstrong, Captain Scott, Amy Johnson)
  • significant historical events, people and places in their own locality. (for example The Poppy Factory and its link to reasons for Remembrance)

Key Stage 2

Children will continue to develop a chronologically secure knowledge and understanding of British, local and world history, establishing clear narratives within and across the periods they study. They will notice connections, contrasts and trends over time and develop the appropriate use of historical terms. They will regularly address and sometimes devise historically valid questions about change, cause, similarity and difference, and significance. They will also construct informed responses that involve thoughtful selection and organisation of relevant historical information. They will begin to understand how our knowledge of the past is constructed from a range of sources.

Children will learn about

  • changes in Britain from the Stone Age to the Iron Age
    • late Neolithic hunter-gatherers and early farmers, for example, Skara Brae
    • Bronze Age religion, technology and travel, for example, Stonehenge
    • Iron Age hill forts: tribal kingdoms, farming, art and culture
  • the Roman Empire and its impact on Britain
    • Julius Caesar’s attempted invasion in 55-54 BC
    • the Roman Empire by AD 42 and the power of its army
    • successful invasion by Claudius and conquest, including Hadrian’s Wall
    • British resistance, for example, Boudica
    • ‘Romanisation’ of Britain: sites such as Caerwent and the impact of technology, culture and beliefs, including early Christianity
  • Britain’s settlement by Anglo-Saxons and Scots
    • Roman withdrawal from Britain in c. AD 410 and the fall of the western Roman Empire
    • Scots invasions from Ireland to north Britain (now Scotland)
    • Anglo-Saxon invasions, settlements and kingdoms: place names and village life
    • Anglo-Saxon art and culture
    • Christian conversion – Canterbury, Iona and Lindisfarne
  • the Viking and Anglo-Saxon struggle for the Kingdom of England to the time of Edward the Confessor
    • Viking raids and invasion
    • resistance by Alfred the Great and Athelstan, first king of England
    • further Viking invasions and Danegeld
    • Anglo-Saxon laws and justice
    • Edward the Confessor and his death in 1066
  • A local history study
    • Hampton Court and its importance in the life of the Tudor Monarchs
  • a study of an aspect or theme in British history that extends pupils’ chronological knowledge beyond 1066
    •  the history of crime and punishment over the last 1000 years
  • the achievements of the earliest civilizations – an overview of where and when the first civilizations appeared and a depth study of Ancient Egypt
  • Ancient Greece – a study of Greek life and achievements and their influence on the western world
  • a non-European society that provides contrasts with British history –Mayan civilization c. AD 900

 

Geography

Intent

Our geography curriculum is designed to inspire in children a curiosity and fascination about the world and its people that will remain with them for the rest of their lives. We want children to gain knowledge about diverse places, people, resources and natural and human environments, together with a secure understanding of the Earth’s key physical and human processes. As they progress, their growing knowledge about the world will help them to deepen their appreciation of the interaction between physical and human processes, and of the formation and use of landscapes and environments. Geographical knowledge, understanding and skills provide the frameworks and approaches that explain how the Earth’s features at different scales are shaped, interconnected and change over time. Our Knowledge Organisers specify the key knowledge, vocabulary and definitions that we expect all children to have developed by the end of each unit of lessons.

Overall Aims

Our geography curriculum (overview PDF below) is designed to ensure that all children will

  • develop contextual knowledge of the location of globally significant places – both terrestrial and marine – including their defining physical and human characteristics and how these provide a geographical context for understanding the actions of processes
  • understand the processes that give rise to key physical and human geographical features of the world, how these are interdependent and how they bring about spatial variation and change over time
  • are competent in the geographical skills needed to
    • collect, analyse and communicate with a range of data gathered through experiences of fieldwork that deepen their understanding of geographical processes
    • interpret a range of sources of geographical information, including maps, diagrams, globes, aerial photographs and Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
    • communicate geographical information in a variety of ways, including through maps, numerical and quantitative skills and writing at length

Key Stage 1

Children will learn about the world, the United Kingdom and their locality. They will understand basic subject-specific vocabulary relating to human and physical geography and begin to use geographical skills, including first-hand observation, to enhance their locational awareness.

Their learning can be defined within 4 strands, where the children will learn

Locational Knowledge

  • name and locate the world’s seven continents and five oceans
  • name, locate and identify characteristics of the four countries and capital cities of the United Kingdom and its surrounding seas

Place Knowledge

  • understand geographical similarities and differences through studying the human and physical geography of a small area of the United Kingdom, and of a small area in a contrasting non-European country

Human & Physical Geography

  • identify seasonal and daily weather patterns in the United Kingdom and the location of hot and cold areas of the world in relation to the Equator and the North and South Poles
  • use basic geographical vocabulary to refer to:
  • key physical features, including: beach, cliff, coast, forest, hill, mountain, sea, ocean, river, soil, valley, vegetation, season and weather
  • key human features, including: city, town, village, factory, farm, house, office, port, harbour and shop

Geographical Skills & Fieldwork

  • use world maps, atlases and globes to identify the United Kingdom and its countries, as well as the countries, continents and oceans studied at this key stage
  • use simple compass directions (North, South, East and West) and locational and directional language [for example, near and far; left and right], to describe the location of features and routes on a map
  • use aerial photographs and plan perspectives to recognise landmarks and basic human and physical features; devise a simple map; and use and construct basic symbols in a key
  • use simple fieldwork and observational skills to study the geography of their school and its grounds and the key human and physical features of its surrounding environment

 

Key Stage 2

Children will extend their knowledge and understanding beyond the local area to include the United Kingdom and Europe, North and South America. This will include the location and characteristics of a range of the world’s most significant human and physical features. They will develop their use of geographical knowledge, understanding and skills to enhance their locational and place knowledge.

Within the 4 strands, children will learn

Locational Knowledge

  • locate the world’s countries, using maps to focus on Europe (including the location of Russia) and North and South America, concentrating on their environmental regions, key physical and human characteristics, countries, and major cities
  • name and locate counties and cities of the United Kingdom, geographical regions and their identifying human and physical characteristics, key topographical features (including hills, mountains, coasts and rivers), and land-use patterns; and understand how some of these aspects have changed over time
  • identify the position and significance of latitude, longitude, Equator, Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere, the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, Arctic and Antarctic Circle, the Prime/Greenwich Meridian and time zones (including day and night)

Place Knowledge

  • understand geographical similarities and differences through the study of human and physical geography of a region of the United Kingdom, a region in a European country, and a region within North or South America

Human & Physical Geography

  • describe and understand key aspects of
    • physical geography, including: climate zones, biomes and vegetation belts, rivers, mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes, and the water cycle
    • human geography, including: types of settlement and land use, economic activity including trade links, and the distribution of natural resources including energy, food, minerals and water

Geographical Skills & Fieldwork

  • use maps, atlases, globes and digital/computer mapping to locate countries and describe features studied
  • use the eight points of a compass, four and six-figure grid references, symbols and key (including the use of Ordnance Survey maps) to build their knowledge of the United Kingdom and the wider world
  • use fieldwork to observe, measure, record and present the human and physical features in the local area using a range of methods, including sketch maps, plans and graphs, and digital technologies